Monday, 18 February 2013

What is a Digital Signature

After talking about the Basic Cryptography its the time to learn about the Digital signatures...!!!

A Digital Signature Certificate, like hand written signature, establishes the identity of the sender filing the documents through internet which sender can not revoke or deny. Accordingly, Digital Signature Certificate is a digital equivalent of a hand written signature which has an extra data attached electronically to any message or a document.
Digital Signature also ensures that no alterations are made to the data once the document has been digitally signed. A DSC is normally valid for 1 or 3 years, after which it can be renewed
A Digital Signature is a method of verifying the authenticity of an electronic document.

What is a Digital Signature Certificate...?

Digital signature certificates (DSC) are the digital equivalent (that is electronic format) of physical or paper certificates. Examples of physical certificates are drivers' licenses, passports or membership cards. Certificates serve as a proof of identity of an individual for a certain purpose; for example a driver's license identifies someone who can legally drive in a particular country. Likewise, a digital certificate can be presented electronically to prove your identity, to access information or services on the Internet or to sign certain documents digitally, properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type.

To digitally sign a document, you must have a digital ID. This unique identifier can obtained from various Certification Authorities on the Web, such as VeriSign and EchoSign. Once you have a digital ID, you can add register it with programs that support digital signatures, such as Adobe Acrobat and Microsoft Outlook. Then you can use the program's "Sign" feature to add your digital signature to documents.
The digital signature is simply a small block of data that is attached to documents you sign. It is generated from your digital ID, which includes both a private and public key. The private key is used to apply the signature to the document, while the public key is sent with the file. The public key contains encrypted code, also called a "hash," that verifies your identity.
Digital signatures can be used to certify or approve documents. Certifying signatures verify the document's creator and show that the document has not been altered since it was signed. Therefore, only the original creator of a document can add a certifying signature. Approval signatures can be added by anyone with a digital ID and are used to approve documents, track changes, and accept terms stated with a document.

                                                         Digitally Signed Word Document

            So if a document is once digitally signed then its difficult to tamper it by others...!
A digital signature scheme typically consists of three algorithms:
  • A key generation algorithm that selects a private key uniformly at random from a set of possible private keys. The algorithm outputs the private key and a corresponding public key.
  • A signing algorithm that, given a message and a private key, produces a signature.
  • A signature verifying algorithm that, given a message, public key and a signature, either accepts or rejects the message's claim to authenticity.
Two main properties are required. First, a signature generated from a fixed message and fixed private key should verify the authenticity of that message by using the corresponding public key. Secondly, it should be computationally infeasible to generate a valid signature for a party who does not possess the private key.

How Digital Signatures works...?

 Assume you were going to send the draft of a certain contract to your client in another town. You want to give your client the assurance that it was unchanged from what you sent and that it is really from you. Here then would be the process:
1. You copy-and-paste the contract (it’s a short one!) into an e-mail note.
2. Using special software, you obtain a message hash (mathematical summary) of the contract.
3. You then use a private key that you have previously obtained from a public-private key authority to encrypt the hash.
4. The encrypted hash becomes your digital signature of the message. (Note that it will be different each time you send a message.)

The disadvantages of using digital signatures involve the primary avenue for any business: money. This is because the business may have to spend more money than usual to work with digital signatures including buying certificates from certification authorities and getting the verification software..., any how nothing in this world is for free.... :)

Types of Digital Signatures :

Class 1: The use of digital ID’s for secure email enables the user to digitally sign and encrypt digital communication. The best way to secure and validate your email address is by using Class I Digital Signature. The recipient of the email will know that the content was kept confidential during transmission.

Class 2: Safe Solutions provides LRA (Local Registration Authority) for commencement of service, Class 2 certificate from the IT Department and ROC department. The Class 2 Digital certificates are electronic files that are used to identify people and resources over networks such as the internet.

Class 3: Class 3 Digital Signature recognizes people and resources over network and ensures encrypted communication between two parties. Safe Solutions provides LRA (Local Registration Authority) for commencement of service. The class 3 Digital Signature certificate recognizes people at E- procurement, E-Tender & E-actions.
The list of licensed CAs along with their contact information is available on the MCA porta...
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Sunday, 17 February 2013

What is Spam

After reviewing my post  Backtracking Emails I felt that I had missed to say something about Spams.., so here I'll be talking completely about spams, how it is made, why it is made and how to avoid it...!!!

Spam involving nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by email. Clicking on links in spam email may send users to phishing web sites or sites that are hosting malware. Spam email may also include malware as scripts or other executable file attachments. Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk.

How do they get my Email Id
Spammers collect email addresses from chatrooms, websites, customer lists, newsgroups, and viruses which harvest users' address books, and are sold to other spammers. They also use a practice known as "email appending" or "epending" in which they use known information about their target (such as a postal address) to search for the target's email address. Much of spam is sent to invalid email addresses. Spam averages 78% of all email sent. According to the Message Anti-Abuse Working Group, the amount of spam email was between 88–92% of email messages sent in the first half of 2010...!!!

How do they Spam

a. Appending: Similar to a telephone directory, here One will have the list of Name, Email Id and many more personal information's of clients. A spammer will get those details officially or unofficially...!!!

b. Image spam: This is one of the serious issue where texts and messages are stored in the attractive(erotic/beautiful/pornographic ) images and those images are uploaded to the popular websites, the one who clicks on it will be exploited by spammer as he can steal the host cookie..!!!

c. Blank spam: Blank spam is spam without any payload advertisements, but still it fits the definition of spam because of its nature as bulk and unsolicited email...!!!


 So what are the effects of Spam

 a. Every time a "spammer" sends out email spam, the entire Internet community has to bear the cost,  in particular the recipients and the ISPs at the receiving end. It wasted a lot of recipients' time and disk space... :(

b. Spam also ties up bandwidth and resources on computers and routers all over the Internet. Every unwanted email message adds to the total cost of operating the networks of computers which form the Internet. Spam can disrupt a network by crashing mail servers and filling up hard drives. Spam also constitutes an invasion of Internet users' online privacy... :(

c. On the other hand, if any servers or organizations / institutes being classified as SPAM sites, others may not be able to receive normal emails from these sites... :(


 So what can I do to avoid Spam...?

a. Never ever Sign Up on Un-Known websites and never share your Email Id to Anonymous...

b. Avoid clicking the links that are in the email you receive if the sender is an anonymous...

c. It is common sense that no one today will ask your help by Introducing themselves as XYZ working in ABC with income of several $ as post photos through email and asks your personal details or may call you to meet her/him...!

d. Here is how to take revenge against these bloody mother fuckers, through Report Spam, i.e before you delete your spam, forward your spam to: as this is the Spam box for FTC (Federal Trade Commission). Mail sent to this box is investigated. If it is indeed spam, the original sender can be charged $500 per email. The more mail they get from different users but same spammer, the more it's likely to be investigated. 

 Be aware of attractive, erotic, pornographic images that will reach any of your mail boxes and never forget these words before clicking on them...!!!

Do you love experiments so here is my journey in finding a spammer by Backtracking the senders Email, and never forget to stay Anonymous on Web    

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Friday, 15 February 2013

What is DirectX

Ever wondered just what does DirectX means...???

Gaming and multimedia applications are some of the most satisfying programs you can get for your PC, but getting them to run properly isn’t always as easy as it could be. First, the PC architecture was never designed as a gaming platform. Second, the wide-ranging nature of the PC means that one person’s machine can be different from another. While games consoles all contain the same hardware, PCs don’t: the massive range of difference can make gaming a headache.
To alleviate as much of the pain as possible, Microsoft needed to introduce a common standard which all games and multimedia applications could follow – a common interface between the OS and whatever hardware is installed in the PC, if you like. This common interface is DirectX,
something which can be the source of much confusion.

DirectX is an interface designed to make certain programming tasks much easier, for both the game developer and the rest of us who just want to sit down and play the latest blockbuster. Before we can explain what DirectX is and how it works though, we need a little history lesson.

DirectX history

Any game needs to perform certain tasks again and again. It needs to watch for your input from mouse, joystick or keyboard, and it needs to be able to display screen images and play sounds or music. That’s pretty much any game at the most simplistic level.

Imagine how incredibly complex this was for programmers developing on the early pre-Windows PC architecture, then. Each programmer needed to develop their own way of reading the keyboard or detecting whether a joystick was even attached, let alone being used to play the game. Specific
 routines were needed even to display the simplest of images on the screen or play a simple sound.
Essentially, the game programmers were talking directly to your PC’s hardware at a fundamental level. When Microsoft introduced Windows, it was imperative for the stability and success of the PC platform that things were made easier for both the developer and the player. After all, who would bother writing games for a machine when they had to reinvent the wheel every time they began work on a new game? Microsoft’s idea was simple: stop programmers talking directly to the hardware, and build a common toolkit which they could use instead. DirectX was born.

How it works

At the most basic level, DirectX is an interface between the hardware in your PC and Windows itself, part of the Windows API or Application Programming Interface. Let’s look at a practical example. When a game developer wants to play a sound file, it’s simply a case of using the correct library function. When the game runs, this calls the DirectX API, which in turn plays the sound file. The developer doesn’t need to know what type of sound card he’s dealing with, what it’s capable of, or how to talk to it. Microsoft has provided DirectX, and the sound card manufacturer has provided a DirectX-capable driver. He asks for the sound to be played, and it is – whichever machine it runs on.

From our point of view as gamers, DirectX also makes things incredibly easy – at least in theory. You install a new sound card in place of your old one, and it comes with a DirectX driver. Next time you play your favourite game you can still hear sounds and music, and you haven’t had to make any complex configuration changes.

Originally, DirectX began life as a simple toolkit: early hardware was limited and only the most basic graphical functions were required. As hardware and software has evolved in complexity, so has DirectX. It’s now much more than a graphical toolkit, and the term has come to encompass a massive
selection of routines which deal with all sorts of hardware communication. For example, the DirectInput routines can deal with all sorts of input devices, from simple two-button mice to complex flight joysticks. Other parts include DirectSound for audio devices and DirectPlay provides a toolkit for online or multiplayer gaming.

DirectX versions

The current version of DirectX at time of writing is DirectX 11.0. This runs on all versions of Windows from Windows XP up to and including Windows Server 2008 along with every revision in between. It doesn’t run on older versions of Windows...!!!

With so many versions of DirectX available over the years, it becomes difficult to keep track of which version you need. In all but the most rare cases, all versions of DirectX are backwardly compatible – games which say they require DirectX 9 will happily run with more recent versions, but not with older copies. Many current titles explicitly state that they require DirectX 10, and won’t run without the latest version installed. This is because they make use of new features introduced with this version, although it has been known for lazy developers to specify the very latest version as a requirement when the game in question doesn’t use any of the new enhancements. Generally speaking though, if a title is version locked like this, you will need to upgrade before you can play. Improvements to the core DirectX code mean you may even see improvements in many titles when you upgrade to the latest build of DirectX. Downloading and installing DirectX need not be complex, either.

Upgrading DirectX

All available versions of Windows come with DirectX in one form or another as a core system component which cannot be removed,
 so you should always have at least a basic implementation of the system installed on your PC. However, many new games require the very
latest version before they work properly, or even at all.

Generally, the best place to install the latest version of DirectX from is the dedicated section of the Microsoft Web site, which is found at As we went to press, the most recent build available for general download. You can download either a simple installer which will in turn download the components your system requires as it installs, or download the complete distribution package in one go for later offline installation.

Another good source for DirectX is games themselves. If a game requires a specific version, it’ll be on the installation CD and may even be installed automatically by the game’s installer itself. You won’t find it on magazine cover discs though, thanks to Microsoft’s licensing terms.

Diagnosing problems

Diagnosing problems with a DirectX installation can be problematic, especially if you don’t know which one of the many components is
 causing your newly purchased game to fall over. Thankfully, Microsoft provides a useful utility called the DirectX Diagnostic Tool,
although this isn’t made obvious. You won’t find this tool in the Start Menu with any version of Windows, and each tends to install it in a different place.

The easiest way to use it is to open the Start Menu’s Run dialog, type in dxdiag and then click OK. When the application first loads, it takes a few seconds to interrogate your DirectX installation and find any problems. First, the DirectX Files tab displays version information on each one of the files your installation uses. The Notes section at the bottom is worth checking, as missing or corrupted files will be flagged here.

The tabs marked Display, Sound, Music, Input and Network all relate to specific areas of DirectX, and all but the Input tab provide tools to test the correct functioning on your hardware. Finally, the More Help tab provides a useful way to start the DirectX Troubleshooter, Microsoft’s simple linear problem solving tool for many common DirectX issues...!!!

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Tuesday, 12 February 2013

What is Adsense

When I looked at the terms and conditions of Google's Adsese it looked so huge and quite messy, this made me to write this article so that who ever from today likes to sign up for an Adsense account can easily get an overview of all its T&C...!
The Google Adsense online advertising network, that is an effective way to earn revenue from your website or blog with very less efforts. Sign-up for a Adsense account account to display adverts on your website or blog pages and you'll get paid each time a visitor clicks on an advert. Google Adsense is widely used and welcomes applications from small publishers as well as large publishers. Your website or blog must meet Google Adsense eligibility criteria before it's accepted into the program so here is a brief overview of there T&C's....

Basic Requirements:

Applicants must have a working website or blog to join Google Adsense. A newly-established website or blog is acceptable in most parts of the word, including the United States, Canada and Europe. In some locations, including China and India, but I suggest you to spend 6 to 8 months in enriching your Website or Blog, to make it popular and to get descent rate of daily visitors and only then to sign up for Adsense...!!! 

Contents & Conditions:

Google Adsense has strict content policies to protect the interests of its advertisers. Adsense accepts applications only from websites with original content. If your site contains duplicate or stolen content including text, images and multimedia clips then Adsense will disable the account. Google also bars sites with adult content or content that promotes illegal activity, including file sharing and some video or music download sites. In case of websites I hope you will have ethics but in case of bloggers I strictly recommend to have some ethics...!!! 

Other Conditions:

The quality of traffic to a website or blog is an important consideration for Google Adsense, as I stated in the Basic Requirements, sites must meet strict criteria that prohibit the use of artificial traffic generation schemes or software because these can unfairly inflate advertiser costs. Applicants must also agree not to click the advertisements on their own sites. Google Adsense automatically disables accounts if it suspects click fraud. Applicants must agree to Google's advertisement display guidelines. All sites must also publish a privacy policy that meets Adsense terms and conditions.
It is the condition where all the clients signed up with Adsense gets themselves banned permanently as most of them neglects this condition and click on the adds published on there web/blog pages better stay safe....!!!

Personal Requirements:

The legal definition of an adult varies between locations, but you must be over 18 years old to qualify for a Google Adsense account. Applicants should also have a bank account for receiving regular payments from Google Adsense. The network pays publishers with a check or electronic funds transfer for each month when the minimum $100 payment threshold is met.

So why to waste time...? do something and don't loose this opportunity as the initial investment on this business is 0 and you can do this for Video contents toooo...!!!  

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